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Found 242 Resources

Coronavirus shows how to get people to act on climate change – here’s the psychology New!

The COVID pandemic has highlighted how certain cognitive biases affect both how people have responded to messaging, and these biases are also at play in climate change communication. Instead of polar bears and future generations, emphasize climate impacts in the there and now to address temporal and spacial biases (the tendency to discount threats that are far away or far in the future). Avoid referring to any disputes about climate science to evade optimism bias (our greater interest in good than bad news).

Geoff Beattie and Laura McGuire, Edge Hill University. The Conversation | 07/29/20

Reflections + Resources from an Act of Collective Imagination: And 8 Tips for Fanning the Flames of Possibility

As the founding Director of the U.S. Department of Arts and Culture (a non-profit) transitions out of leadership, he shares reflections and resources related to cultural strategy and responding to the question, how might we build creative people-power to respond to the social and ecological crises of our times... Read More

Adam Horowitz, U.S. Department of Arts & Culture | 07/28/20

Americans want green spending in federal coronavirus recession relief packages

Coronavirus recession relief packages now under discussion on Capitol Hill present an opportunity to power an economic rebound and address climate change at the same time. This survey, conducted May 15-20, 2020 finds:

  • Including green infrastructure spending increases support for a coronavirus relief package.
  • Support for wind and solar investments and for clean transportation investments is particularly strong.
  • Including electricity transmission investments does not cause a change in support for the package.
  • Read More
    Parrish Bergquist, Yale Program on Climate Change Communications, Matto Mildenberger, University of California-Santa Barbara, & Leah Stokes, University of California-Santa Barbara. | 07/07/20

Motivating Lifestyle Driven Advocacy: Research and Insights by Protect Our Winters

This research illuminates ways to build authentic and effective connections with outdoor enthusiasts around climate change. Though outdoor enthusiasts highly value natural areas for recreation, their temperaments are not immediately conducive to advocacy. Nonetheless, athletes are trusted lifestyle messengers, and a “motivation map” of decision-making pathways related to climate change activism points the way to one simple framing message that works across the board. Specific messaging guidance includes: 

  • Avoid being overly political
  • Use climate experts who live outdoor lifestyles as trusted messengers
  • Respect the journey to activism
  • Embrace imperfect advocacy
  • Acknowledge an effed up system
  • Make systemic solutions more personal
  • Elevate local heroes
  • Translate systemic impacts into personal ones people can understand

These insights are based on interviews with professional athlete-advocates, a small survey of athlete's followers, ffcus groups with outdoor enthusiasts, and a large survey of outdoor enthusiasts.

Protect Our Winters | 07/01/20

POLL: Two-Thirds of Americans Think Government Should Do More on Climate

  • 63% of U.S. adults say global climate change is affecting their community, with 24% responding it is affecting their community "a great deal"
  • 60% view climate change as a "major threat" to the well-being of the U.S. - as high percentage of respondents taking this view as in any Pew Research Center survey going back to 2009
  • 65% say the Federal government is doing "too little" to reduce effects of climate change
  • 79% think the U.S. should prioritize developing alternative energy sources and Read More
    Pew Research Center | 06/24/20

Our Commitment to Black and Brown Lives

To our wonderful Lab community,

We are all witnessing a fracturing of our world: a global pandemic, unprecedented unemployment, deep anxiety about the future -- and now, mass protests in hundreds of cities as Black and Brown communities demand justice. Not just accountability. Not just firings and charges. But justice...

For George Floyd, Ahmaud Arbery, Breonna Taylor, Tony McDade, and too many others.
For the thousands of Black Americans who have died from COVID-19.
For the thousands more who are impacted, every day, by environmental racism and climate injustice.

Every passing day illustrates the urgent need for our movements to recognize that our struggles are interconnected, including through the disproportionate impacts experienced by Black, Indigenous, and People of Color from Covid-19, the climate crisis, and police brutality. The work to combat racism is not just done in solidarity but in our own self-interest. All people, including white people, are damaged by living in a racist society. As climate advocates, we must fight every day for our air, land, and water while ALSO fighting like hell to ensure that the systems meant to protect us (democracy, criminal justice, healthcare) do not continue failing Black and Brown communities.

Many of you don’t know my history, but I was born and raised in Detroit, a city that has endured the devastation of white flight, racism, and riots throughout its history. Detroit is one of the most segregated cities in America, and it has led to incalculable human suffering and marginalization. It is heartbreaking to see our great cities going through this again and again.

I am also gay, and the modern LGBTQ rights movement started with riots against police in June of 1969. We are a country forged in protest. It is in our DNA.  Despite all our collective gains, a desire for justice is the common thread. Our multi-racial team at the Lab stands united in our commitment to Black and Brown lives.

While the Lab typically works behind the scenes, we don’t want to be behind the scenes during times of crisis. Supporting our community means speaking up and out against white supremacy and doubling down on our commitment to equity and justice. We also recognize that different folks in our community need different types of support at this moment.

  • We will listen to and amplify Black voices in this moment – their grief, their anger, their calls for justice, and their solutions.
  • We will push back on misinformation and racist characterizations of what people are protesting aboutand the political spin and sleight of hand that will blame black and brown people for being angry.
  • We will dig further into our commitment to learning how to be anti-racist and how to be an accomplice in this work – not just an ally.
  • We will discuss amongst our staff and our board how to marshal organizational resources and energy toward anti-racist efforts.
  • We will also talk to our family, friends, neighbors, and colleagues about what is happening and tell them where we stand and what is moral at this moment. For those of us who are white, we will end “white silence,” and not wait for Black and Brown folks in our community to make the arguments on social media and in the news. We will be vocal even if it makes some of our friends uncomfortable.
  • We will take action, calling on our local, state, and national leaders to demand justice for those whose lives have been taken and for the transformation of the system that continues to fail our Black and Brown neighbors.
  • And we invite members of the Lab community to share your thoughts with us.
The Lab team is committed to honoring our equity and justice principles. Our staff is compiling a list of actions for us to take this week, and we plan to share these with the Lab community in our Lab Insights newsletter on Thursday.

There is no more business as usual. The only way forward is for all movements for racial and environmental justice to see our goals as aligned. There is no order of operations. We cannot fight campaigns for the climate and “come back later” to deal with equity.

Yours in the struggle,

Sean Kosofsky
Executive Director

Sean Kosofsky, Climate Advocacy Lab | 06/02/20

Why Violent Protests Work

This conversation with author and University of Pennsylvania professor Daniel Q. Gillion examines the history of protests in America and how they've inspired actual policy change. Highlights include:

  • "The reality is that—objectively examining protests—violent protest has a positive impact on political and policy change. Nonviolent protest brings awareness to an issue; violent protest brings urgency to an issue... naturally I don’t condone violence, and I’m not pushing for individuals to engage in unlawful behavior, but if we are objectively examining the influence of protests, we’re being disingenuous to say that violent protest does not bring individuals to the table, that it does not lead to policy change. That simply isn’t true."
  • "What protest does, especially Ferguson, is it fits in this larger narrative of racial and ethnic minority protests that have pushed back on police brutality throughout the years. So we’re seeing the Ferguson arrests around 2014—what’s the impact it has? It begins to bring awareness and urgency to this issue. Shortly after that, there’s more attention and more interest in Black Lives Matter. There are more protests in 2016, and Black Lives Matter begins to grow in strength. By the time we get to 2020, the reason why George Floyd becomes a protest that bubbles over into the streets and leads to various forms of violence and resonates across the world is because of all the protests that preceded it. George Floyd is not necessarily the catalyst—it’s the crescendo."
  • "When you look at the positive support towards Black Lives Matter, it’s highly correlated with individuals voting. They’re more likely to turn out and when they turn out, they vote for the Democratic candidate. More African Americans turned out in 2012 than in 2016, but when you look at the areas where BLM protests took place, we saw increases in black voter turnout even as other areas saw a drop. So the backlash to these protests will not have the electoral outcome people think it will."
  • "...these protests cause a spike in donations to liberal candidates. This is also true for conservative protests—the more protests there are, the more money people donate to conservative candidates and causes. But the current protests are part of a blue wave. If history is any guide, we should see a major change take place in 2020."
Laura Bassett, GQ, with Prof. Daniel Q. Gillion, University of Pennsylvania | 06/02/20

Webinar: How We Won 100% Clean: Lessons for the Future

The climate and clean energy movement made significant gains in 2019. New Mexico, New York, and Washington all passed commitments to 100% carbon-free electricity. Idaho’s largest utility committed to 100% renewable energy, and South Carolina passed a major piece of solar legislation. How can we ensure our work results in even more of these strategic opportunities in 2020 and beyond? Join evidence-based advocacy experts from the Climate Advocacy Lab (and our partners!) for a look under the strategic “hood” of these... Read More

Climate Advocacy Lab | 05/20/20

Climate Change in the American Mind: April 2020

Based on surveying from April 7 – 17, public opinion about climate change remains where it was in the Fall, and not suffered due to the pandemic. Belief in the existence of climate change and its human cause are at or tied with all-time highs dating back to 2008. And majorities remain interested in climate change and media coverage of it. This, despite survey respondents reporting a drop in media coverage they have seen of the issue recently.

Yale University and George Mason University. | 05/19/20

Poll: Few Americans Believe the U.S. Economy Will Be Impacted by Climate Change

Most Americans are underestimating both the potential economic impact of climate change and the role that entrepreneurs and investors can play in rectifying it, according to Inerjys Ventures, a global climate solutions investment firm:

  • Fewer than two in five Americans (38%) believe climate change will damage the U.S. economy if it is not addressed.
  • About one in five Americans (19%) think it will cost more to solve climate change globally than it will to fix the problems that arise from it.
  • A quarter (25%) of Americans don’t think efforts from U.S. entrepreneurs/start-up companies are important in the fight against climate change.
  • Only about a third of Americans (35%) believe there is not enough money being invested in technology that could help prevent or fix climate change.
  • 42% say the U.S. government has more of a responsibility than U.S. companies to address issues in America that cause climate change.
The Harris Poll on behalf of Inerjys Ventures | 05/05/20

Millions of Good Jobs: A plan for economic renewal

A new economic analysis from the Political Economy Research Institute shows that with a bold stimulus plan, we could provide family-sustaining jobs for over 9 million people every year for the next 10 years while building an economy that fosters cleaner air and water, higher wages, healthier communities, greater equity, and a more stable climate. That includes supporting over 1 million manufacturing jobs each year. The 9 million jobs per year include:​

  • 4.6 million jobs... Read More
    Ben Beachy, Sierra Club, Robert Pollin, University of Massachusetts Amherst & Shouvik Chakraborty, University of Massachusetts Amherst. | 05/01/20

Predictors of global warming risk perceptions among Latino and non-Latino White Americans

It is known that Latinx people in the US are more engaged with climate change than non-Latinx white people, in part because they see more risks stemming from climate change. This research finds that this difference in perceived climate risks stems from a number of differences between white and (US citizen) Latinx people, including more egalitarian and less individualistic values, more identification with the Democratic party, and more contact with family outside the US on the part of Latinx people.

Matthew H. Goldberg & Abel Gustafson & Matthew T. Ballew & Seth A. Rosenthal & Matthew J. Cutler & Anthony Leiserowitz. Climatic Change. | 04/27/20

Which racial/ethnic groups care most about climate change?

Non-Hispanic whites are less engaged on climate than Latinx or black Americans, across a range of measures. Latinx and blacks are more likely to be in the "Alarmed" and "Concerned" audience segments (with fully 69% of Latinx respondents Alarmed/Concerned). Whites are less willing to join a climate activism campaign, and less likely to say climate is "very important" to their vote for president in 2020. For Latinx, climate was rated as important as immigration reform. Racial/ethnic differences in political party may explain some of these differences, as whites and blacks are equally Alarmed or Concerned after accounting for their party preferences.

Matthew Ballew, Edward Maibach, John Kotcher, Parrish Bergquist, Seth Rosenthal, Jennifer Marlon, Anthony Leiserowitz | 04/14/20

Letters and Email Behavioral Design Checklist

A behavior-science-informed checklist for letters and email. Use this checklist to make sure your message is being properly understood and to help you identify new opportunities for maximizing your program’s impact and ensure that its different components are optimized for the way people (actullay) behave.


Behavioral Evidence Hub | 04/06/20

HOLY SH*T! 7 things to do instead of hoarding toilet paper

This irreverent guide to activism in the time of pandemic offers a roundup of the most creative and effective social movement responses to COVID-19, filtered through seven of the most relevant tools from the Beautiful Trouble toolbox, with links to resources compiled especially for this moment. Recommendations include:

  1. Take leadership from the most impacted – Effective activism requires providing appropriate support to — and taking direction from — those who have the most at stake.
  2. Make the invisible visible – Many injustices are invisible to the mainstream. When you bring these wrongs into full view, you change the game, making the need to take action palpable.
  3. Simple rules can have grand results – Movements, viral campaigns and large-scale actions can’t be scripted from the top down. An invitation to participate and the right set of simple rules are often all the starter-structure you need.
  4. An abundance of tactics – Tactics for building a sense of community include mass distributed phone-banking, hashtag campaigns, artistic vigil, and more. 
  5. Practice cultural disobedience – Civil disobedience is the deliberate violation of unjust laws. In a similar spirit, cultural disobedience bravely subverts dominant cultural norms.
  6. Let’s be careful with each other, so we can be dangerous together. Flatten the curve so we can rise up together for the long haul. Rest and joy are also radical acts.
  7. Now is the time to build a solidarity economy. A tradition of radical economic organizing that strives to replace dependence on exploitative economic relations with “solidarity chains” linking community-based alternatives.


Rae Abileah and Nadine Bloch, Waging Nonviolence | 03/17/20

Oil and gas companies invest in legislators that vote against the environment

In this paper, researchers match campaign contribution data from oil and gas companies to Congressional legislators’ voting records on environmental issues as measured by the League of Conservation Voters and examine evidence for the influence hypothesis, investment hypothesis, or both. The results strongly support the investment hypothesis: the more a legislator votes against bills to protect the environment, the more money they later receive from oil and gas companies supporting their reelection. For example, a 10% decrease in voting for environmental legislation in 2014 predicted an additional $5,400 in campaign contributions from oil and gas companies in 2016. This analysis also shows that, instead of attempting to sway undecided or opposing legislators’ votes, oil and gas companies seem to provide financial rewards to members of Congress after they have voted against legislation to protect the environment.

Matthew H. Goldberg et. al., Yale University & University of Cambridge | 03/03/20

How broadcast TV networks covered climate change in 2019

The volume of climate change coverage on the corporate broadcast nightly and Sunday morning news shows increased 68% from 2018 to 2019. Much of this increase was driven by CBS. New climate legislation, activism, and climate as a top-tier issue in the Democratic primary were major drivers of coverage. Despite this increase, climate coverage as a whole still made up only 0.7% of overall corporate broadcast nightly and Sunday morning news shows in 2019, and the quality of the coverage was generally shallow. And people of color were massively underrepresented in climate coverage -- making up only 10% of TV show guests.

Ted MacDonald, Media Matters | 02/27/20

Measuring People Power in 2020+

In the 2010s, people-powered movements and advocates disrupted the status quo en masse around the globe. But large numbers are not enough to create systemic change. As we enter into a new decade, there is a need to more consistently and innovatively measure people power, and in doing so, transform our organizations’ reach and impact.

In the most exhaustive study of its kind to date, MobLab and 13 other organisations heard from more than 500 social change practitioners and leaders across the global non-profit world. How can organisations measure the depth and value of people’s engagement and participation? What indicators can you use to assess grassroots power building, organising, and volunteer initiatives? Through research, consultations, and a global survey, the resulting report offers a baseline for how organisations are measuring people power today, and reveals where more attention is needed to accurately reflect the power of people coming together for change.

MobilisationLab, Climate Advocacy Lab | 02/19/20

Webinar: What advocates can take away from 10 years of surveying "Climate Change in the American Mind"

The "Alarmed" is the largest "Six Americas" segment for the first time. Americans in every congressional district are willing to join a climate campaign, if asked. We still aren't having enough conversations with family and friends about climate change.

10 years of surveys from Yale Program on Climate Change Communication (YPCCC) and George Mason Center for Climate Change Communication (4C) have yielded thousands of data points to help us better understand “Climate Change in the American Mind” – but teasing out actionable insights as an... Read More

Climate Advocacy Lab, Yale Program on Climate Change Communication | 02/12/20

Poll: Majority of US Adults Believe Climate Change Is Most Important Issue Today

  • More than half of U.S. adults (56%) say climate change is the most important issue facing society today, with 6 in 10 saying they have changed a behavior to reduce their contribution to climate change. Nearly three-quarters (72%) say they are very or somewhat motivated to make changes. 
  • While 7 in 10 say they wish there were more they could do to combat climate change, 51% of U.S. adults say they don’t know where to start. Among those who... Read More
    The Harris Poll for American Psychological Association | 02/06/20

The role of climate change education on individual lifetime carbon emissions

This study shows that receiving comprehensive climate education leads to long-term pro-climate behaviors for university students. Using surveys and focus group interviews of students who engaged in a one-year climate intensive at SJSU, the authors found that the course positively affected students' attitudes, decision-making, and behavior at least five years later. In particular, these students were much more likely to agree that there is a scientific consensus on climate change (83%) and that climate change will affect their lives "a great deal" or "moderately" (84%) than the general US public. They also reported making a greater emphasis on waste-reducing and energy-conserving decisions as a result of their climate education, including taking public transit and making energy-efficient purchasing decisions. The climate education course also changed social norms and efficacy perceptions for students, creating a "strong sense of personal obligation and the perceived individual agency to address climate change" where students felt more willing and comfortable discussing the issue with their communities. These changes led to estimated decreases in carbon emissions for students exposed to climate education.

Eugene C. Cordero, Diana Centeno, Anne Marie Todd, San Jose State University. PLOS One | 02/04/20

Resilient Clean Energy for California

This report documents the widespread impacts of power shutoffs in California and the drawbacks of conventional solutions. Vote Solar documents the risks of relying on dirty BUGs, including deaths from carbon monoxide poisoning, hazardous air pollution, and, ironically, fire hazards. We then show how solar + storage -- resilient clean energy -- can be used to cost-effectively provide small-, medium-, and large- scale solutions to reduce the harm from power shutoffs. Most importantly for state and local policymakers, Vote Solar proposes a suite of policy solutions needed to secure a resilient clean energy future.

The following are the recommended policy solutions:

  • Maintain and expand distributed energy policies.
  • Focus on medically vulnerable communities.
  • Focus on low-income communities and communities of color.
  • Focus on critical facilities and schools.
  • Provide state financing for local infrastructure.
  • Take microgrid R&D to the next level.
  • Integrate energy resilience into emergency planning and response.
Bentham Paulos, Paulos Analysis for Vote Solar | 02/01/20

Webinar: Winning By A Landslide: How we won the Portland Clean Energy Fund (PCEF)

How did the alliance behind the Portland Clean Energy Fund (PCEF) move a visionary idea from concept to groundbreaking reality? In this webinar, the Climate Advocacy Lab was joined in conversation with members of the PCEF Steering Committee for an "under the hood" look at the campaign's insights, challenges, and lessons learned –– also captured in a new, interview-based report that captures the "anatomy" of the campaign. This campaign secured Read More

Climate Advocacy Lab with Portland Clean Energy Fund | 01/29/20

Comprehensive Building Blocks for a Regenerative & Just 100% Policy New!

This groundbreaking and extensive document lays out the components of an ideal 100% policy that is grounded in a Just Transition framework and centers equity and justice. Authored by members of the 100% Network, it brings forward and coalesces the expertise from frontline communities.

The Building Blocks document was designed primarily for frontline organizations looking to develop and implement their own local renewable energy or energy efficiency policies with a justice framework. Secondly, is  to build alignment with environmental organizations and intermediary groups that are engaged in developing and advocating for 100% policies.

Recommendations for a comprehensive approach to achieving 100% regenerative energy that is centered on justice include:

  • Ensure 100% transition off of fossil fuels
  • Set aggressive targets
  • Impose a comprehensive scope of coverage
  • Define what is renewable
  • Transition from a for-profit utility model and push for utility reform
  • Center Just Transition in policy
  • Prioritize and identify environmental justice and frontline populations and communities
  • Promote gender justice
  • Advance tribal sovereignty and rights
  • And more!

Among several sets of “Building Blocks” provided are those for:

  • Just Transition and Prioritizing the Frontline
  • Land, Transportation and Buildings
  • Public Health, Careers and Workers
  • Siting, Ownership and Geography
  • Distributed Generation and the Grid
  • Financing and Energy Safety Net
  • Public Participation and Governance
  • Fuel Switching, Disposal, and Recycling

A helpful section on “Key Concepts to Be Mindful Of” helps break down examples of keywords from fossil fuel and utility policies that are used to stop a transition to a 100% regenerative economy.

The 100% Network | 01/22/20

Solar with Justice

Under-resourced communities face a disproportionate share of societal burdens and lack access to many of the benefits other communities enjoy. Participation in the solar economy can help ease these burdens and provide low-and middle-income households with economic relief.

This report aims to accelerate the implementation of solar in under-resourced communities in ways that provide meaningful, long-lasting benefits to those communities. The recommendations in the report set a path forward for increasing solar deployments that result in significant economic, equity, and environmental improvements, including recommendations for building equity into solar development and obstacles that need to be addressed in making solar available to under-resourced communities. Eleven case studies from across the country are explored.

The top ten general findings and recommendations (Chapter 4) are:

  1. Partnerships involving trusted community organizations are essential

  2. It’s still the experimental phase for LMI solar

  3. Installations for community institutions deserve special consideration

  4. Resilience should be a component of LMI solar

  5. Financial risk needs to be minimized for LMI households and community organizations

  6. Partnerships involving trusted community organizations are essential

  7. It’s still the experimental phase for LMI solar

  8. Installations for community institutions deserve special consideration

  9. Resilience should be a component of LMI solar

  10. Financial risk needs to be minimized for LMI households and community organizations

Additional recommendations for State Governments can be found in Chapter 5; Philanthropic Foundations (Chapter 6); Community Organizations (Chapter 7); Other Stakeholders (Chapter 8); Expanding and Improving Project Financing (Chapter 9), For additional related resources, including an Executive Summary (English and Spanish editions available) and webinar recordings, see the Solar With Justice webpage.

Clean Energy States Alliance et. al. | 12/19/19

Webinar: Our Power Puerto Rico: A campaign case study & framework for "Just Recovery"

As communities and advocates worldwide work to respond adequately to increasing climate disasters, where can climate advocates find resources to advance just, equitable, and community-based disaster recovery?

In this webinar, Climate Advocacy Lab teamed up with Climate Justice Alliance (CJA) to discuss CJA's recently released multimedia report Our Power Puerto Rico: Moving Toward a Just Recovery (a project completed with support from the Lab!). During the conversation, authors, experts, and frontline organizers who contributed to the case study and report highlight tools (including the 'Just Recovery framework'), practices, and experiential lessons learned from applying a participatory model of "Just Recovery" to disaster response in Puerto Rico following hurricane María. 

Speakers shared:

  • Details of the Our Power PR campaign – including recaps of the on-the-ground brigades that were organized to support recovery; the efforts to bring clean energy to farms on the island; and the critical role food sovereignty and agroecology played (and play) in ongoing recovery
  • Best practices & lessons learned from the Just Recovery model of people-to-people disaster response
  • Some of the challenges in doing this work, and the insights that resulted from addressing these hurdles
  • ...And a robust Q&A (starting at 50:55 in the recording), where speakers addressed issues like where funding comes from for this work, the role of agroecology in a regenerative economy, and advice for how to support continued, on-the-ground efforts in PR.

A special thank you to all our guest speakers, including Jayeesha Dutta (Another Gulf Is Possible), Jesús Vázquez (Organización Boricua), Shakara Tyler (Black Dirt Farm Collective), Elizabeth Yeampierre (UPROSE), and Angela Adrar (CJA).  

Slides can be accessed by clicking the "Download File" button on this page. Members of the Climate Advocacy Lab can see the Lab's summary of the multimedia report here.

Climate Advocacy Lab, Climate Justice Alliance | 12/11/19

Do natural disasters change risk perceptions and policy preferences about climate change?

Drawing on county-level U.S. public opinion data from 2014-2018, as well as data on federally declared disasters across the country, this paper shows that exposure to natural disasters increases the likelihood of both believing that climate change will harm people and supporting the adoption of some measures to address it.

Analysis shows that changes in both risk perception and support for mitigating measures extend beyond pro-environmental statements (e.g. regulating CO2) to include greater approval for proposals with measurable steps toward regulating greenhouse gas emissions and shifting to renewable energy sources from fossil fuels; this suggests that support for mitigation measures will continue to grow as the effects of climate change are increasingly realized. However, because disaster events may be especially frequent and severe in some areas, changes in public opinion may not necessarily be uniform across the country, which could mean that climate action occurs at a more local level 

Rather than purely driven by long-term ideological or partisan beliefs, this research suggests that the climate change preference formation process can include updates based on individuals’ personal circumstances.

Giancarlo Visconti & Kayla Young, Purdue University. | 11/26/19

Storytelling for Climate Action: Leveraging virtual reality, film and cultural strategy for impact –– with the Climate Story Lab

"Do not limit how you do your advocacy or political organizing ... Artists are the labor force of the cultural organizing we need in the world, so if you do not have artists or creative collaborators like filmmakers or storymakers on your team, that is an injustice for the future that we need to build rapidly." –Layel Camargo, Climate Woke

Hosted in collaboration with the Climate Story Lab team (a project of Exposure Labs and Doc Society)Read More

The Climate Advocacy Lab & The Climate Story Lab | 11/20/19

Webinar: Centering Equity in Climate Adaptation and Resilience –– with Asian Pacific Environmental Network and The Greenlining Institute

"Rather than being viewed as victims to be protected and saved, vulnerable communities should instead define, develop, and drive the solutions."

–Amee Raval quoting Pathways to Resilience: Transforming Cities in a Changing Climate (recording 00:44:20)

This conversation highlights findings from two reports focused on how the climate advocacy community can support equitable climate resilience (the ability of communities to adapt and thrive in the face of impacts from climate change) in climate policies and programs, as advocates nationwide are pushed to think beyond a... Read More

The Climate Advocacy Lab, Asian Pacific Environmental Network & The Greenlining Institute | 11/18/19

Green New Deal for Public Housing Can Stand Up to Scrutiny (polling)

This polling tests Green New Deal (GND) for Public Housing Act legislation in an electoral environment, with Republican arguments against it. Polling includes questions probing the support of voters for a policy "if it would...":

  • Help flood-proof vulnerable public housing and increase backup power, to make public housing complexes community safety centers during disasters.
  • Add rooftop and community renewable energy generation including wind and solar, and have all building systems be powered by electricity so that public housing can transmit energy back to the grid and generate a revenue.
  • Use bulk, public procurement for the most efficient American-made electric appliances to lower prices, and allow community members to purchase these efficient appliances at the bulk price discount.

Responses showed net positive support, with the jobs and apprenticeship aspects of the GND for Public Housing policy the most popular. These findings are consistent with previous research on Green Housing legislation.

Executive Summary findings include:

  • Democratic voters clearly support new policies on housing reform, with independents being split. Republicans oppose these policies but report they would be more likely to support the policies if they included tax relief and new programs for jobs.

  • Voters across the ideological spectrum move in favor of comprehensive housing reform when the reform includes job-training programs, new jobs, and the removal of lead and mold.

  • Partisanship and political ideology are the strongest motivations determining support for housing reform, controlling for a variety of political and demographic factors.

Sean McElwee, John Ray, Daniel Aldana Cohen, Julian Brave Noisecat, Data for Progress, YouGov Blue & Socio-Spatial Climate Collaborative | 11/01/19

Indigenous Principles of Just Transition

Just Transition is a framework for a fair shift to an economy that is ecologically sustainable, equitable and just. A Just Transition requires us to build an economy for life in a way that is very different than the economy we are in now. This calls for strategies that democratize, decentralize and diversify economic activity while we damper down consumption, and redistribute resources and power. As Just Transition is becoming popular with different theories, practices and approaches, the Indigenous Environmental Network felt the need to compile a set of Indigenous-based principles of what Just Transition means to Indigenous peoples in North America-Turtle Island. These principles fall into three categories, with several principles further elaborated under each of the following sections:

  1. Responsibility & relationship
  2. Sovereignty
  3. Transformation for Action

The Indigenous Principles of Just Transition are a result of a process created to remember the contributions of the many tribal voices of Indigenous Peoples that came to the Protecting Mother Earth Conferences that started in 1990 and continued to 2010. It is only a guide "for Indigenous peoples – our American Indian, Alaska Natives and the Canadian First Nations, and other Indigenous Peoples of the four-directions of Mother Earth – to use, if you chose to re-build your Nation and community."

Indigenous Environmental Network | 10/31/19

Poll: Americans would rather reduce oil and gas exploration than ‘drill, baby, drill’

A large majority of Americans say drilling for oil and natural gas off the coasts and on public lands should decrease or remain at current levels (more than 8 in 10 people), a viewpoint at odds with the expansion promoted by President Trump as part of his “energy dominance” agenda. Just over half said energy exploration should be reduced on federal lands (51 percent) and said it should be reduced offshore (53 percent). Thirty-two percent said it should stay as is on... Read More

Washington Post and Kaiser Family Foundation | 10/25/19

Iowa Voters Support Climate Action

Large majorities of Iowa voters want their elected officials to reduce global warming and increase clean, renewable energy, and are worried about climate change, having experienced the impacts of extreme weather. These concerns translate to support for candidates backing specific policies (poll toplines are available here). 

Strong majorities say they are more likely to vote for a candidate who supports:

  • extending government funding for renewables (77%), 
  • requiring the U.S. to generate 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2050 (73%), 
  • setting stronger fuel efficiency standards (72%), and 
  • requiring fossil fuel companies to pay a tax on carbon pollution (66%).

More than two-thirds of registered voters (69%) say they are worried about climate change, and say it is having an effect on Iowa’s agriculture (74%), extreme weather in the state (71%), its economy (59%) and Iowans’ health (58%). And as a result of the historic floods that devastated parts of the Midwest this year, roughly a quarter of Iowans (27%) say they or someone in their family has experienced property damage or other economic hardships as a result of flooding or severe storm damage in the past 12 months.

Iowans are likewise concerned about the impacts climate change is having on health and safety:

  • More than three-quarters (79%) say pollution of rivers, lakes, and streams is a serious problem in their area, and 77% also say extreme weather such as heavy rainfall and flooding is a serious problem.
  • Nearly two-thirds (66%) worry that floods could expose and damage oil and gas pipelines, causing pollution to rivers and other bodies of water.

 Similar large majorities of Iowans favor policies to address climate change and its impacts, and support increased generation of renewable energy.

  • Seven in 10 Iowa voters (70%) say they favor more government action to address climate change.
  • More than three-quarters (76%) support a policy to require Iowa to generate 100% of its energy from renewable sources (RPS) by 2050.
  • Eight in 10 voters (80%) support extending government funding for renewables, such as wind and solar. 
  • More than three-quarters (77%) say new infrastructure projects should be built to withstand extreme weather, even if it comes at a higher cost to taxpayers.

Iowans believe policies like switching to 100% renewable energy will benefit their state, with majorities saying it will have a positive impact on Iowa’s environment (79%), its cities and towns (73%), its economy (70%), and its rural and farming communities (61%). They also say it will lower electricity costs (64%), improve wages (52%), and bring down Iowa’s unemployment rate (50%).


Climate Nexus Polling, Yale Program on Climate Change Communication & George Mason University Center for Climate Change Communication. | 08/12/19

Awake to Woke to Work: Building a Race Equity Culture

Achieving race equity — the condition where one’s racial identity has no influence on how one fares in society — is a fundamental element of social change across every issue area in the social sector. The attainment of race equity requires us to examine all four levels on which racism operates (personal, interpersonal, institutional, and structural), recognize our role in enduring inequities, and commit ourselves to change.

This report presents the Race Equity Cycle, a cycle of change through which organizations transform from a white dominant culture to a Race Equity Culture. To get started, the report recommends the following:

  1. Establish a shared vocabulary. Ground your organization in shared meaning around race equity, structural racism, andother terms related to this work. 
  2. Identify race equity champions at the board and senior leadership levels. Select those who can set race equity priorities, communicate them broadly, drive accountability,and influence the speed and depth at which race equity is embedded in the organization.
  3. Name race equity work as a strategic imperative for your organization. Define and communicate how race equity connects to your mission, vision, organizational values, and strategies.
  4. Open a continuous dialogue about race equity work. Useresearch and learnings from other organizations to startthe conversation with your team or individuals who areinvested in your organizational cause.
  5. Disaggregate data. Collect, disaggregate, and report relevant data to get a clear picture of inequities and outcomes gaps both internally and externally.

This report was written in collaboration with over 120 practitioners, thought leaders, and subject matter experts on diversity, inclusion and race equity in the social sector. Both primary and secondary research was used to validate the theory and tools included, including an extensive literature review (over 25 reports, scholarly articles, other peer materials), in-depth interviews and a series of focus groups to refine and validate our findings. This publication is relevant if you:

  • Have some awareness that race equity is essential to driving impactful change within the social sector
  • Want to play an active role in advancing race equity in your organization
  • Lead, want to lead, or have been asked to lead race equity efforts within your organization
  • Want to understand how to build a Race Equity Culture within your organization
Equity in the Center. | 08/09/19

Climate Advocacy Lab—What We DO

The Climate Advocacy Lab has become the center of gravity for data, research, and sharing what works (and doesn't) in climate and clean energy advocacy and campaigning in the US.

Our mission is to help the climate community build grassroots power and win through evidence-based advocacy. We do this by enabling organizations to run. smarter and more effective public engagement campaigns. We focus on both tactics, including communications, digital, and volunteer mobilization, as well as strategy, such as how our movement can build the political will necessary to tackle the climate crisis. We envision a country where more people care more deeply about climate and clean energy, more take action when asked, and help build more power.

Climate Advocacy Lab | 07/22/19

Tipsheet: Peer-to-peer (P2P) texting

The Lab is committed to acting based on evidence. Before you begin your own P2P texting campaign, make sure you cover these basics...

  • Determine your goal
  • Find your platform
  • Identify your audience
  • And... Read More
    Climate Advocacy Lab | 07/22/19

Survey: The Youth Climate Summit is full of young activists trained in the anti-Trump movement

A quarter of young U.S. climate activists reported that their first experience protesting was as part of one of the large marches protesting the Trump administration and its policies, according to surveys collected from participants in the global "Fridays for the Future" strikes around the world -- including 220 students living in the U.S. 44% say they participated in the "March for Our Lives" protest against gun violence and more than 40% reported attending one (or both) of the Women's Marches. 

Further, 70% reported that they had contacted an elected official in the past year and 58% had attended a public, town or school meeting. U.S. youth climate activists were also more engaged in confrontational tactics, with 53% saying they’ve been involved in some form of direct action, which involves breaking the law or even violence. U.S. participants were also more engaged in consumer activism: 76% said they had boycotted or deliberately bought a certain product for political, ethical or environmental reasons.

Dana Fisher, University of Maryland. The Washington Post | 07/12/19

How Hope and Doubt Affect Climate Change Mobilization

Encouraging a mix of realistic hope and doubt about addressing climate change may be the optimal mix for encouraging engagement. High levels of both hope in our likelihood of tackling the climate crisis, as well as concerns that we won't be effective (and especially a mix of both) were related to support for climate policy and intentions to take advocacy actions. Overall, there is a hope deficit, with survey respondents listing few reasons for hope, but the most common related to personal actions and seeing social change and growing awareness. Notably, thoughts about government were not a great source of hope, suggesting advocates may need to work hard to convince audiences that there is hope for policy progress.


Jennifer R. Marlon, Brittany Bloodhart, Matthew T. Ballew, Justin Rolfe-Redding, Connie Roser-Renouf, Anthony Leiserowitz, & Edward Maibach. Frontiers in Communication. | 06/11/19

Our Power Puerto Rico: Moving Toward a Just Recovery

This multimedia report provides a comprehensive case study of Climate Justice Alliance (CJA)’s Our Power Puerto Rico (OurPowerPR) campaign as a model of Just Recovery, an effective and innovative tool for climate adaptation that integrates many sectors of the economy to include energy democracy, food sovereignty, rural infrastructure and community self-determination. It introduces the Just Recovery framework, an approach to disaster response informed by grassroots rapid response work after extreme flooding in Louisiana in 2016, and Hurricanes Harvey and María in 2017.  The full report, including videos and more, can be accessed on CJA's website here.

With vulnerable communities across the country already experiencing the impacts of climate change, this report captures how intentional, mutual support networks and people-to-people solutions are emerging as powerful climate mitigation strategies. A Just Recovery approach used in OurPowerPR contributed to shifting political will, scaling translocal organizing models and proactively responding to climate change. Already, learnings from the OurPowerPR campaign have been applied by other grassroots climate organizations during climate disasters.

Key points of the Just Recovery framework include:

  • Respond (vs. aid): Mutual support networks activated to support communities on the ground to meet articulated needs of those most impacted & vulnerable

  • Recover (vs. extract): After disaster, provide resources and support for all to get back to work and into their homes

  • Rebuild (vs. displace): Long-term rebuilding of communities so that they are stronger than prior to the disaster and no longer highly vulnerable

Since the report was authored by frontline community members themselves, the reader will see “we” written to reference frontline communities—those most impacted by climate change—throughout the report. This supports a peer-to-peer practical documentation style of writing and informs the utility of the report for frontline community groups around the United States and the world facing similar challenges.

This multimedia report was created with support from the Climate Advocacy Lab.


Jayeesha Dutta, Shakara Tyler & Jesús Vázquez for Climate Justice Alliance | 06/03/19

Politics & Global Warming, April 2019

Climate looks to be a higher profile issue in voters minds headed into 2020. 38% say candidates' stances will be important to their presidential votes, and it's the third most important voting issue for liberal Democrats (after "environmental protection" and slightly of head of "developing clean energy"), and 17th out of 29 issues for all registered voters (which is an improvement!). Other survey findings: 45% would support declaring a national emergency on account of climate change; and tax/fee policy solutions receive lower support than regulation and clean energy investment as solution approaches.

George Mason and Yale Universities | 05/16/19

Do Americans understand how air pollution from fossil fuels harms health?

Many Americans are unable to name a specific health problem caused by air pollution from the use of fossil fuels, and many more Americans are unaware of the full array of serious health problems caused by air pollution from the use of fossil fuels.  The results indicate that Americans are particularly unaware of neurological health problems caused by exposure to air pollution from the use of fossil fuels. Only one percent of participants responding to the open-ended question cited neurological health problems, and no respondents mentioned a number of other health conditions linked to air pollution, including diabeteskidney disease, or weakening of the bones.

Many Americans are also unaware that some groups are more likely to be affected by air pollution from fossil fuels than others, and even fewer are able to name which groups are more vulnerable.  Those respondents who said that air pollution from the use of fossil fuels does cause health problems were asked an additional set of questions. First, they were asked “Do you think that some groups of Americans are more likely than other Americans to experience health problems caused by air pollution from the use of fossil fuels?” In response, 56% of participants said they think some groups of Americans are more affected by air pollution from the use of fossil fuels than others, while 4% said no group is at higher risk, and 12% indicated that they “don’t know.”

Participants who responded that they did think some groups of Americans are more affected by air pollution from the use of fossil fuels than others were then asked an open-ended follow-up question: “Which groups of Americans do you think are more likely than other Americans to experience health problems caused by air pollution from the use of fossil fuels?” Nearly half of participants (48%) named at least one group. Seniors were mentioned most often (15%), followed by those who live or work in polluted areas (13%), children (8%), people who live in cities (8%), people who are sick or disabled (7%), those in low-income households (7%), infants and very young children (3%), those with weak immune systems (2%), minorities (2%), people living in specific geographic locations (1%), and coal miners (1%).

Many of these responses align with scientific findings. According to the American Lung Association, children and teenagers, older adults, people who have low incomes, people who work or exercise outdoors, people who live or work near busy highways, and people with lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases, or diabetes are all at higher risk of suffering health problems from air pollution.

John Kotcher et. al., Yale Program on Climate Change Communications & the George Mason University Center for Climate Change Communication | 05/14/19

Framing climate change in frontline communities: anthropological insights on how mountain dwellers in the USA, Peru, and Italy adapt to glacier retreat

This research looks at frontline mountain communities in the North Cascades, WA, as well as two international communities, where visible glacier retreat has occurred in recent decades, making climate change impacts easier to see and making these impacts a topic of conversation among locals. In all three cases, residents were keenly aware of impacts related to climate change, but they understand these impacts and organize their responses through a community frame, not a climate change frame.

This research suggests that using climate change framing to discuss climate impacts may not be the only way to address barriers to action, such as the remoteness and uncertainty surrounding climate change impacts. Rather, locals' use of community frames on impacts during events such as community meetings suggest that "it is possible to take action to address climate change without explicitly speaking of climate itself."  For example, rather than speaking directly of glaciers or of climate change, these communities emphasize the importance of secure livelihoods, intergenerational continuity, community autonomy, and (in the U.S.) emphasizing self-reliance; these communities also draw on community traditions and cultural heritage.

The effectiveness of the community frame calls into question some widely shared notions about the role of belief in climate change as a crucial precondition for adaptation. It also challenges the "perceive–predict–act" model of climate change response, which draws on research suggesting that individuals who believe in manmade climate change are more likely to be concerned and support action on the issue.

Researchers call for climate communication to be a genuine dialog: "Instead of considering what could be gained if populations like these in mountains took more seriously what others say about climate change, we have sought to document what could be gained if others took more seriously what mountain populations say about community and what they do about glacier retreat."

Orlove et. al., Columbia University. Regional Environmental Change. | 05/07/19

Principles for Equitable Policy Design for Energy Storage

The Union of Concerned Scientists convened a group of diverse stakeholders, including environmental justice and grassroots organizations, policy experts, industry, labor, consumer advocates, faith groups, and renewable energy advocates in December 2018 in Chicago, IL, focused on the equitable deployment of energy storage. Energy storage is poised to expand dramatically, transforming the way we produce and use electricity. It is critical that this expansion and the transition to a clean energy economy address the needs of vulnerable residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods and frontline communities without inadvertently causing harm.

The participants developed a set of consensus principles for storage deployment that elevate the critical importance of community-led clean energy solutions. Together these principles can help state policymakers focus on solutions that ensure that the growth of energy storage improves all communities, including environmental justice communities, communities of color, low- income residents, tribal communities, and historically disadvan- taged communities. Importantly, these principles are not meant to constrain organizations taking stronger positions on particular policies, regulatory proceedings, or project proposals.

  1. Reducing emissions
  2. Improving resilience
  3. Promoting local economic development
  4. Accelerating greater levels of renewable energy development
  5. Protecting consumers
  6. Ensuring participation
Union of Concerned Scientists | 05/01/19

Poll: More Americans see Democratic positions on climate as 'in the mainstream'

More Americans see the Democratic Party’s positions on climate change, health care, abortion and immigration as being “in the mainstream” than the Republican Party’s positions on those issues. 56% of Americans say the Democratic Party’s views on climate change are 'within the mainstream' while only 29% say that the Republican Party’s views on climate change are in the mainstream. 

NBC News and Wall Street Journal | 03/04/19

Rapidly declining remarkability of temperature anomalies may obscure public perception of climate change

Climate change exposes people to conditions that are historically unusual but that will become increasingly common over time. What kind of weather do people think of as normal or unusual under these changing conditions? 

This research shows that people’s experience of weather in recent years (rather than longer historical periods) determines the climatic baseline against which current weather is evaluated, potentially obscuring public recognition of anthropogenic climate change. It also indicates that the "remarkability" of particular temperatures changes rapidly with repeated exposure and provides evidence for a “boiling frog” effect: the declining noteworthiness of historically extreme temperatures is not accompanied by a decline in the negative sentiment that they induce, indicating that social normalization of extreme conditions rather than adaptation is driving these results.  

This rapidly shifting normal baseline means warming noticed by the general public may not be clearly distinguishable from zero over the 21st century, with potential implications for both the acceptance of global warming and public pressure for mitigation policies. 

Frances C. Moore, Nick Obradovich, Flavio Lehner, and Patrick Baylis. PNAS. | 02/25/19

Poll: Likely 2020 voters support parts of Green New Deal, despite reservations over the cost

Certain Green New Deal policies (green jobs guarantee, 100% renewable energy mandate) played better than others (closing all fossil fuel power plants, electric vehicles mandate) in this national survey of likely voters conducted Jan. 4-26, 2019 on 11 likely GND policies. The poll included both proponent and opposition messaging for each policy, and tested four different cost scenarios on each question, randomly alternating between zero, low, medium and high prices to test how the cost of a policy weighed on respondents’ opinions. Faced with the ranges of possible price tags, voters’ support varied, suggesting costs could factor high into the GND’s political viability. Policies improving drinking water infrastructure were the most popular. 

Additional analysis in this Huffington Post article: Likely 2020 Voters Support Green New Deal, Despite Reservations Over the Cost.

Data for Progress for Civis Analytics | 02/14/19

Renewable Energy Narrative Analysis: January–December 2018

This report looks at how the media covers renewable energy with a specific focus on the extent to which it quotes women as spokespeople, references issues of equity, or talks about communities of color. The report also provides baseline data and metrics against which to measure the impact of the diversity of leaders advancing clean energy realities ("women as well as men, communiteis of color as well as white, male entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley") and to track their progress over time. Report findings indicate where resources must be invested to truly reflect and lift up the “100% solutions and leaders” already here.

Of 2,348 articles reviewed:

  • 10% referenced equity or justice
  • 21% included women as spokespeople or lawmakers (although some climate and energy news fails to mention any spokesperson at all)
  • 7% referenced communities of color
  • and 65% were optimistic and solutions-focused.

The report also looks at dominant narrative trends to measure the overall tone of the conversation, with the following  stand-out narratives:


  • Clean energy is growing and accelerating
  • Renewable energy’s future should be just and equitable


  • Fossil fuel workers need jobs
  • Corporations are buying more clean energy than ever
  • Renewable energy is increasingly bipartisan


  • Renewable energy needs new technology
  • The “Trump effect” on clean energy creates needless division on the issue
The Solutions Project | 02/14/19

Cli-fi (climate fiction) on the big screen changes minds about real climate change

Climate change-based fiction (or “cli-fi”) presents a potentially powerful opportunity for advocates to engage the public with pro-action narratives. Even when the science behind cli-fi properties is sensationalized (such as with films like The Day after Tomorrow), some research suggests that audiences can still be persuaded to be more alarmed, talk about the issue with friends, and take action against climate change.

Jen Christensen, CNN | 02/08/19

Poll: More Republicans say stricter environmental regulations are ‘worth the cost’

The share of Americans who say stricter environmental laws and regulations are “worth the cost” has increased in recent years (63% in 2019 vs. 59% in 2017) with a significant shift coming among Republicans (45% in 2019 vs 36% in 2017). 

This shift comes as Republicans have become more divided ideologically over stricter environmental regulations. Among the roughly two-thirds of Republicans and voters who 'lean-Republican', 60% say stricter laws cost too many jobs and hurt the economy. However, among the party’s moderates and liberals (who make up about 1/3 of all Republicans and GOP leaners), 60% say stricter environmental laws are worth the cost.

There also are gender, age and educational differences in these attitudes. Women (69%) are more likely than men (58%) to say stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost. And while majorities in every age group say stricter environmental laws are worth it, a larger share of those ages 18 to 29 (72%) say this compared with those who are older than 50 (60%).

Positive views of environmental laws and regulations are also more common among adults with more education. Roughly three-quarters of those with a college degree or more (74%) say stricter environmental laws are worth the cost, compared with 59% of those without a college degree.

Read the full write-up from Pew

Pew Research Center | 02/07/19

Politics & Global Warming, December 2018

Drawing on a nationally representative survey, this report describes how American registered voters — Republicans, Democrats, and Independents — view global warming, personal and collective action, and climate policies.

In 2017, after the inauguration of President Trump, we found that Republican acceptance that global warming is happening and is human-caused declined by 7 and 8 percentage points respectively from the prior year. Interestingly, however, these declines did not lead to increased denial that global warming is happening or human-caused. Instead, the declines led to an increase in Republicans saying “I don’t know” to both questions.
Research has shown that “political elite cues” can influence the opinions of partisans, i.e., that the views espoused by political leaders can influence the views of their followers. The declines in Republican acceptance of human-caused global warming in 2017 may thus have been driven in part by a “Trump Effect” in which the president’s statements and actions—an announcement that he will pull the U.S. out of the Paris Climate Agreement, his efforts to reverse the Clean Power Plan, and prior tweets suggesting that climate change is a hoax—likely had an effect on his fellow Republicans.
In 2018, however, something interesting happened. Despite President Trump’s continued statements suggesting global warming is not real or a serious issue, Republican views bounced back. As of December 2018, Republican acceptance that global warming is happening and human-caused increased by 5 and 7 percentage points, respectively, from October 2017. These results suggest that the “Trump Effect” has worn off and that Republicans (liberal, moderate, and conservative) are re-engaging the issue, having returned to near historic highs, though still at much lower levels than Democrats or Independents.
We also find that 67% of registered voters are worried about global warming, the highest percentage since our surveys began in 2008. This includes large majorities of liberal Democrats (95%) and moderate/conservative Democrats (80%).

Anthony Leiserowitz, Edward Maibach, Seth Rosenthal, John Kotcher, Matthew Goldberg, Matthew Ballew, Abel Gustafson and Parrish Bergquist | 02/05/19